Gene splicing, SNP, Jumping genes, Transposons

I was looking for an easy way to explain DNA, Gene splicing, SNP, Jumping genes, Transposons and such to a non biologist without using too much technical jargons. And then I came across a study by University of Cambridge about how human mind reacts and learns written text , JUst see if you can read the following text, They are sure not spelling mistkes but made by rearranging text  in word by retaining the first and last letter in such a way that your mind still can read it

 

*I CAN READ IT! CAN YOU*

 

Cna yuo raed tihs? fi yuo cna raed tihs, yuo hvae a mnid to udrtsand DNA and why it is poisbssle for DNA to Evovle.

 

i cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde inervtisy, it dseno’t mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the lny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! now you can raed tihs

Did you read the text and were you able to understand the meaning and the message it contained, If so think about it if you can read the message even when the order at which it is written is changed, Our DNA is also evolving in a similar fashion,now go on read about Gene splicing, SNP, Jumping genes, Transposons you would understand them better.

I guess perhaps we can use the same to explain to students or non biologists many other features of DNA especially how it is possible for HSP genes to create different proteins from different structural arrangement or how more than one DNA can code for one protein

Hormone-replacement therapy influences gene expression profiles and is associated with breast-cancer prognosis: a cohort study

source : http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1555602

 

Postmenopausal hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) increases breast-cancer risk. The influence of HRT on the biology of the primary tumor, however, is not well understood.

 

We obtained breast-cancer gene expression profiles using Affymetrix human genome U133A arrays. We examined the relationship between HRT-regulated gene profiles, tumor characteristics, and recurrence-free survival in 72 postmenopausal women.

DNA Analysis Could Boost Accuracy Of Thyroid Tests

Source: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/sections/genetics/

By fine-tuning “fine-needle aspiration” biopsies with a super-fast genetic microarray technology, a team of surgeons from NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City says they can greatly enhance the accuracy of these tests.

“For patients with worrisome thyroid nodules, this means better information on whether the nodule is malignant or benign. That should help them and their doctors make better decisions as to what treatment they’d like to pursue,” explains senior researcher Dr. Thomas J. Fahey III, associate professor of surgery and Frank Glenn Faculty Scholar in Surgery at Weill Cornell Medical College, and associate attending surgeon at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medial Center in New York City.

In the study, the team created microarray-generated “gene expression profiles” from fine-needle aspirates by comparing the expression of thousands of genes from both cancerous and benign thyroid tissues. This process ended in a grouping of 25 differently expressed genes that helped distinguish malignant from benign growths.

“We next tested the accuracy of these patterns using 22 fine-needle aspirate samples from benign or malignant thyroid nodules,” Dr. Lubitz explained.

“In all but one case, the microarray test agreed completely with the results of extensive histological analysis in the lab,” she said.

According to the researchers, a move from histological to microarray analysis of thyroid aspirates could impact anywhere from 5 to 25 percent of patients undergoing this kind of diagnosis — giving them a better grasp of whether they might require surgery, for example.

Cost remains a factor, with a single microarray screen currently totaling about $500. “We anticipate, however, that as this technology becomes more widespread and improves, the price per test will fall much lower,” Dr. Fahey says.

DNA microarray–based analysis may be useful for assessing the risks and benefits of hormone therapy

Hormone-replacement therapy influences gene expression profiles and is associated with breast-cancer prognosis. The US FDa has apprved use of two new microarrays for clinical decision making. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) encourages the development of new technologies such as microarrays which may improve and streamline assessments of safety and the effectiveness of medical products for the benefit of public health. The FDA anticipates that these new technologies may offer the potential for more effective approaches to medical treatment and disease prevention and management. One of the new application for microarrays apart from use in cancer treatment could be in Hormone replacement therapy. A study has been publoished using microarrays to identify modifications in the gene expression profile of the ocular posterior segment in ovariectomized (OVX) mice with and without substitutive estradiol therapy. some of the other studies can be viewd at

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/4/16

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1555602

Consolidation in Oligo industry and Growth for India based companies and outsourcing value proposition in Genomics and microarray/oligo industry

Ocimum Biosolutions acquires European based Oligo manufacturing company – Isogen Life Science

November 17, 2006, IJsselstein/Hyderabad – Ocimum Biosolutions, a leading provider of laboratory information management systems (LIMS), bioinformatics solutions, Microarrays and contract research headquartered in Hyderabad, India, has acquired the BioMolecules synthesis business of Isogen Life Science based in The Netherlands.

Ms. Anuradha Acharya, CEO of Ocimum Biosolutions said “We are very pleased to have taken a significant step towards becoming a global oligo player with the Isogen acquisition. We will continue looking for targets in related areas to scale up our oligo production capability. This acquisition will also help us become a more integrated genomics services provider with three delivery points in Indianapolis, IJsselstein and Hyderabad.”

Mr. Hans Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, MD of Isogen Life Science said, “It is an excellent opportunity for the Biomolecules Division of Isogen Life Science to become a global player in this competitive business. The new business configuration will be much more flexible and will be able to play an important role in the vast growing demand for oligo nucleotides all over the world. Ocimum is the perfect partner for fulfilling a broad platform of needs in this market segment.”

Avendus Advisors was the sole financial advisor to Ocimum for the deal. Commenting on the transaction, Shiraz Bugwadia, A.V.P., Avendus Advisors “Ocimum is one of the few Indian players within the BioIT and microarrays space to have scaled up successfully over the last couple of years. Ocimum has also been successful at using the inorganic route to scale rapidly by acquiring niche good quality companies in Europe such as MWG Biotech’s division and now Isogen Life Science.”

About Isogen Life Science:

Isogen Life Science (www.isogen-lifescience.com) is a leading supplier of products for the life science sector. The company provides a wide range of instruments, reagents and consumables in the areas of cell biology, molecular biology and biochemistry.

Isogen Life Science is a merger between B&L Systems (1987), the Benelux distributor for scientific instrument companies, and Isogen Bioscience (1988), a leading producer of DNA, RNA, peptides and related products, which are used around the world by pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and leading research institutes.

About Ocimum Biosolutions:

Ocimum Biosolutions is a life sciences R&D enabling company with three main focus areas, BioIT, Microarrays and Contract research services. The US operations of the Company focuses on custom contract research services in the molecular biology area while the Indian operations provide BioIT services and Microarrays. Ocimum has more than 300 prestigious clients worldwide including the Centres for Disease Control, University of Toronto HIV clinic, National Research Council of Canada, Dow AgroSciences, Max Planck Institute etc.

Ocimum has adopted an inorganic strategy to ramp up the business fast and has demonstrated its capability to execute this strategy in the past. As a part of its strategy, Ocimum acquired a division of MWG Biotech, Germany in 2005. The Company has received a host of awards and recognitions. The Company has recently received the IT Innovation award by NASSCOM, presented by H.E. the President of India. Also, Red Herring magazine picked Ocimum as one of the eight compani es to watch in India. Deloitte ranked the Company as 4th Fastest growing Technology company in India and the Fastest growing Life Sciences Company in India.

For more information, please visit: www.ocimumbio.com

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