DNA DATABASE TO HELP IDENTIFY DISAPPEARED

(May 23, 2007) The head of Chile’s Medical Legal Service (SML), Patricio Bustos, announced this week that his organization would create a DNA database that will be used to help identify the remains of those who were disappeared and murdered during the military regime led by Gen. Augusto Pinochet.

Source Santigao times

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Errors in DNA database

The exciting news of google or its benefactor investing in genomics companya and google founders earlier enthusiasm to offer its billion dollar power for genomics indutsry, has produced a mixed responses. I agree with Hsiens post that we should welcome the move

I guess its worthwhile to know why its better if google does so , The UK’s national DNA database, which houses 4.1 million records pertaining to evidence of crimes collected by police, has been found to have upwards of 100,000 incorrect records. 

According to theregister.co.uk, the complex relationship between the country’s police force, its National DNA Database Unit and the forensic service along with a lack of checks and balances has left its DNA database with the large amount of corrupted records, causing 26,200 load problems alone

“There’s in the order of 100,000 unreconciled records now,” claims The Register’s source.

Realated posts

GeneticsandHealth

ScienceDirect

NEWS

DNA file on 100,000 innocent children

Microarrays in daily life

Accurate assessment of a calf’s future performance may soon be possible by using microarrays.

By 2010, less than three years away,
Australia’s largest integrated beef research program, the Beef Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) anticipates cattle breeders may be able to get an accurate assessment of a bull or a dam’s future performance within a few months of its birth

Professor John Gibson, Beef CRC Adaptation and Cattle Welfare Research Leader, says microarray technology has enabled the entire 23,000-odd separate genes of the bovine genome to be printed on one microarray plate the size of a microscope slide. 

“Research overseas indicates that how an animal expresses its genes in early life provides an accurate picture of its gene expression at breeding age.” 

This leads to the prospect of microarrays being printed that carry genes of commercial interest, which could be then used to predict the breeding performance of young animals well before they reach breeding age.

 Prof. Gibson observes that this would help breeders quickly eliminate genetically dud bulls and cows early in their life, without the costs of feeding and progeny testing now required to determine the duds. 

Genes add up risk of autoimmune disease

Geneticists have identified a link between the number of copies of a specific gene an individual has and their susceptibility to autoimmune diseases like lupus.

The research by Professor Tim Aitman of the Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre at Imperial College London, and colleagues, is published in Nature Genetics.

From Medical News 

New approach to study microbiaL GENOTYPING

Over 99% of the Earth’s microorganisms cannot be cultivated in laboratory, making their ecological roles, biochemistry and potential practical applications an unresolved mystery. The cutting-edge approach to tackle this enigma, originally developed for the human genome sequencing project, has been sequencing large quantities of short sections of DNA from the extracts of entire microbial communities, and then assembling these sections back into individual genomes by computational means.

Unfortunately, the diversity of natural microbial communities proved so incredibly high, that very few genomes could be assembled from even the largest metagenomic studies, consisting of millions of DNA sequences.

In a paper published this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Drs. Stepanauskas and Sieracki from Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences  propose an alternative to the metagenomic research.

The new method is based on fluorescence-activated sorting, whole genome amplification, and multi-locus DNA sequencing of single cells. This allows us to sequence any number of genes in each cell, including those that reveal cell’s identity and those that tell us what biochemical reactions the cell is capable of performing”, said Dr. Stepanauskas.

The publication “Matching phylogeny and metabolism in the uncultured marine bacteria, one cell at a time,” is a result of the researchers’ collaboration, 

The paper is available online at: PNAS

There is no ET in Human DNA

Well after all the hulllaba about the presence of extraterrestrial DNA in human genome and lots of blogs and articles later inlcuding the ones from mine which talked about the unusual presence and shift in genetic codon makeup in human DNA. More plausible evidence has started to emerge for what can be termed as ET DNA  in Human genome, triggered  by the completion of the genome sequencing of the marsupial opposum

An international team, led by researchers at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have announced the publication of the first genome of a marsupial, belonging to a South American species of opossum (Monodelphis domestica ). In a comparison of the marsupial genome to genomes of non-marsupials, including human, published in the journal Nature, the team found that most innovations leading to the human genome sequence lie not in protein-coding genes, but in areas that until recently were referred to as “junk” DNA. Genome of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica reveals innovation in non-coding sequences the study helps to explain the evolutionary origins of human DNA and the role played by transposons,  

The study reveals a surprising role in human evolution for “jumping genes”

So how does the marsupial genome sequencing explains what has been refered as the presence of extraterrestrial gene or well of course we dont have any ET DNA

In the words of  Broad Institute director Eric Lander “Evolution is tinkering much more with the controls than it is with the genes themselves,”. “Almost all of the new innovation … is in the regulatory controls. In fact, marsupial mammals and placental mammals have largely the same set of protein-coding genes. But by contrast, 20 percent of the regulatory instructions in the human genome were invented after we parted ways with the marsupial.”

It showed that an important source of genetic innovation comes from bits of DNA, called transposons, that make up roughly half of our genome and that were previously thought to be genetic “junk.”

The research shows that this so-called junk DNA is anything but, and that it instead can help drive evolution by moving between chromosomes, turning genes on and off in new ways.

 “The official textbook picture of how genes work really didn’t appear to be right,” Lander said. “There was much more of the genome standing around shouting instructions than actually producing proteins.”

That raised a question of how evolution actually works on the genome, Lander said. With so much of the genome devoted to regulation, it became apparent that evolution could work by simply changing the instructions rather than changing the protein-coding genes themselves.

Now that perhaps explain all the articles you may have come across about the discovery of extraterrestrial genes in human DNA

Thus, the mobile elements that are typically thought of as “junk DNA” have played a creative role in genome evolution – spreading key genetic innovations involved in the control of gene expression across the genome.

 

A tiny opossum’s genome has shed light on how evolution creates new creatures from old, showing that change primarily comes by finding new ways of turning existing genes on and off

whats in your beef- is Genetically Engineered Food a Hazard?!

Do you share the same concern if you are in EU then relax the rules stipulates that GM food should carry the label to distinguish them from the rest of the crowd. But what if that is not enough.

The website http://www.psrast.org/ gives a list that should worry any spokesperson for GM . well I am certainly concerned and not at all against GM food and GMO studies especially if it can create cheaper medicines or study drug resistance in microbes

According to Charles Saunders, chairman of the British Medical Association’s public health committee

”We simply do not have enough reliable scientific evidence on their safety to be able to make a valid decision as to whether there are potential health effects or not.

Already, an estimated 1 to 2 percent of Americans are allergic to some food, and their reactions can be serious or even fatal.

food allergies Food allergies are caused by proteins which are made by genes. Indeed, the whole purpose of genetic engineering is to force a plant or animal to make new proteins.

In one of the few pieces of hard evidence about the health dangers of genetic engineering, Stephen Taylor, who studies food allergies at the University of Nebraska, found that moving a gene indeed made a new food allergenic.

The regulatory part of the genome was two to three times larger than the portion that actually held the instructions for individual proteins.

With so much of the genome devoted to regulation, it became apparent that evolution could work by simply changing the instructions rather than changing the protein-coding genes themselves.

A tiny opossum’s genome has shed light on how evolution creates new creatures from old, showing that change primarily comes by finding new ways of turning existing genes on and off

 

 

Does the finding prove that transgenic foods are inherently dangerous? Not really

 

 

 

 

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